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A solid–liquid self-adaptive composite (SAC) is synthesized using a simple mixing–evaporation protocol, with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as active constituents. SAC exists as a porous solid containing a near equivalent distribution of the solid (PVDF)–liquid (PDMS) phases, with the liquid encapsulated and stabilized within a continuous solid network percolating throughout the structure. The pores, liquid, and solid phases form a complex hierarchical structure, which offers both mechanical robustness and a significant structural adaptability under external forces. SAC exhibits attractive self-healing properties during tension, and demonstrates reversible self-stiffening properties under compression with a maximum of 7-fold increase seen in the storage modulus. In a comparison to existing self-healing and self-stiffening materials, SAC offers distinct advantages in the ease of fabrication, high achievable storage modulus, and reversibility. Such materials could provide a new class of adaptive materials system with multifunctionality, tunability, and scale-up potentials.