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Comparative proteomic analysis of dental cementum from deciduous and permanent teeth

Background and objectives: Dental cementum (DC) is a mineralized tissue covering tooth roots that plays a critical role in dental attachment. Differences in deciduous vs. permanent tooth DC have not been explored. We hypothesized that proteomic analysis of DC matrix would identify compositional differences in deciduous (DecDC) vs. permanent (PermDC) cementum that might reflect physiological or pathological differences, such as root resorption that is physiological in deciduous teeth but can be pathological in the permanent dentition. Methods: Protein extracts from deciduous (n = 25) and permanent (n = 12) teeth were pooled (five pools of DecDC, five teeth each; four pools of PermDC, three teeth each). Samples were denatured, and proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, digested, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The beta-binomial statistical test was applied to normalized spectrum counts with 5% significance level to determine differentially expressed proteins. Immunohistochemistry was used to validate selected proteins. Results: A total of 510 proteins were identified: 123 (24.1%) exclusive to DecDC; 128 (25.1%) exclusive to PermDC; 259 (50.8%) commonly expressed in both DecDC and PermDC. Out of 60 differentially expressed proteins, 17 (28.3%) were detected in DecDC, including myeloperoxidase (MPO), whereas 43 (71.7%) were detected in PermDC, including decorin (DCN) and osteocalcin (BGLAP). Overall, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that all expressed proteins were related to GO biological processes that included localization and response to stress, and the GO molecular function of differentially expressed proteins was enriched in cell adhesion, molecular binding, cytoskeletal protein binding, structural molecular activity, and macromolecular complex binding. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the trends for selected differentially expressed proteins in human teeth. Conclusions: Clear differences were found between the proteomes of DecDC and PermDC. These findings may lead to new insights into developmental differences between DecDC and PermDC, as well as to a better understanding of physiological/pathological events such as root resorption. Keywords: deciduous teeth; immunohistochemistry; periodontal tissues; permanent teeth; proteomics; root cementum.
GIOVANI, P. A. ; MARTINS, L. ; SALMON, C. R. ; MOFATTO, L S ; PAES-LEME, A. F. ; PUPPIN-RONTANI, R. M. ; KOLLI, T. ; FOSTER, B. ; NOCITI-JUNIOR, F. H. ; KANTOVITZ, K. R. . Comparative proteomic analysis of dental cementum from deciduous and permanent teeth. JOURNAL OF PERIODONTAL RESEARCH, 2021 Jan;56(1):173-185. doi: 10.1111/jre.12808. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

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